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When drug concentrations are available, the distribution of the drug into tissues may complicate the relationship between concentration and clinical effect.In cases in which drug concentrations are not available but a specific drug is suspected, experts recommend waiting five half-lives prior to clinical determination of brain death .Additionally, SDS should include a complete listing of preservatives in Section 3 and allergens/sensitizers in Sections 2, 3, 11, 15, or 16.The individual or organization responsible for the content should be identified and the source of listed health hazards should be cited.Mechanisms of metabolism may be saturated in overdose .As an example of prolonged half-life in overdose, many references indicate the half-life of baclofen is approximately 2–4 h, but in overdose, the duration of effect far exceeds the recommended five half-life calculation .The American College of Medical Toxicology supports the intent of the Federal Regulations which requires Safety Data Sheets (formerly Material Safety Data Sheets) as part of communications to improve safety in the workplace.
Although most hospital laboratories can readily measure serum concentrations of some common drugs in overdose, including lithium, digoxin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid, there are many drugs that cannot be measured in a clinically relevant time frame.
This figure is likely derived from the mathematical observation that 0.55 (50% elimination, five times) equals 0.03125, suggesting that only 3% of a drug remains following five half-lives.
However, this approach may not be appropriate in every case.
Routine urine toxicologic immunoassays have limited sensitivity, even for common drugs, and a "negative" urine drug screen should not be used to exclude drug intoxication, and a "positive" urine drug screen cannot be used to assess the extent or degree of intoxication.
For example, a typical opiate screen does not reliably identify oxycodone and hydrocodone and does not identify synthetic opioids such as fentanyl or buprenorphine, and a typical benzodiazepine screen does not reliably identify clonazepam.